Liver Shorts: Biliary Atresia Organoids, AIH Pregnancy Outcomes, ALT Levels in Primary Care, Polyreactive IgG for AIH

SP Amarachintha et al. Hepatology 2022; 75: 89-103. Open Access: Biliary organoids uncover delayed epithelial development and barrier function in biliary atresia

This is a super cool article documenting a new human model for studying biliary atresia. The authors “generated biliary organoids from liver biopsies of infants with biliary atresia and normal and diseased controls…Organoids from biliary atresia are viable and have evidence of halted epithelial development. The induction of developmental markers, improved cell-cell junction, and decreased epithelial permeability by EGF and FGF2 identifies potential strategies to promote epithelial maturation and function.”

The authors note that delayed development of cholangiocytes impair barrier function and leave the liver susceptible to various insults which can trigger an inflammatory response with potential progression to obliteration of the bile ducts.

CW Wang et al. Hepatology 2022; 75: 5-12. Open Access: Outcomes of pregnancy in autoimmune hepatitis: A population-based study

Among 18,595,345 pregnancies, 935 (<0.001%) had AIH (60 with cirrhosis) and 120,100 (0.006%) had other CLD (845 with cirrhosis). Key findings:

  • AIH was not associated with postpartum hemorrhage, maternal, or perinatal death
  • AIH was associated with preterm births when compared with women without CLD (OR: 2.0)
  • The odds of gestational diabetes (GDM) and hypertensive complications (pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) were significantly higher in AIH compared to other CLD (GDM: OR 2.2 and hypertensive complications: OR: 1.8) and also compared to no CLD in pregnancy (GDM: OR: 2.4 and  hypertensive complications: OR: 2.4)

SJ Wu et al. J Pediatr 2022; 240: 280-283. The Prevalence of Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels Meeting Clinical Action Thresholds in Children with Obesity in Primary Care Practice

In this brief report, the authors identified 7.8% of children from a cross-sectional California cohort (n=12,945) with ALT >44 U/L and BMI in the 95% or higher (2012-2014). Males were twice as likely to have elevated ALT. Ethnicity rates were higher in hispanics, asians than white and black children (in males: 12%, 10.4%, 7.3% and 3.1%, respectively)

R Taubert et al. Hepatology 2022; 75: 13-27. Quantification of polyreactive immunoglobulin G facilitates the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis

Key findings: Polyreactive IgGs (pIgGs) are a common finding in untreated AIH and have “the highest overall accuracy for the distinction between AIH and non-AIH LD compared to the most common conventional autoantibodies.” In addition, in this study with 1568 adutls, pIgGs were present in “up to 88% of patients with seronegative AIH and in up to 71% of AIH patients with normal IgG levels. Under therapy, pIgG returns to background levels of non-AIH-LD.”

#NASPGHAN17 Annual Meeting Notes (Part 1): Neurostimulation for RAP, PSC-IBD, Organoids

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized these presentations. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

William Balistreri Prize: Katja Kovaic et al. Neurostimulation for functional abdominal pain disorders in children –a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. This study enrolled 104 patients.  Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 2: 727-37.

Summary slide:

Fellow Research Award: Symptoms Underestimate Endoscopic Activity in PSC-IBD. Amanda Ricciuto et al. Hospital for Sick Children.

Key points:

  • In patients with IBD-PSC, clinical remission based on clinical symptoms is not reliable indicator of histologic remission.
  • Patients with PSC-IBD are more likely to have active endoscopic disease even when in “clinical remission”
  • Calprotectin levels (not PUCAIs) are helpful in confirming clinical remission.  A calprotectin <93 mcg/g was optimal level in determining clinical remission
  • Better control of disease could improve clinical outcomes (eg. colon cancer, liver progression)

Keynote Address: Organoids: Current and future promise for changing treatment of gastrointestinal and liver disorders.  James Wells Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.

This was a terrific lecture.

  • Example of use of pluripotent stem cell usage: Diabetes. Phase 1 study has been started.
  • Organoids are in essence miniature versions of organs in a dish and with complex combination of cell types.
  • Organoids allow easier testing on these tissues for treatment and diagnosis of diseases
  • Organoids will allow for personalized testing of medications.  Some patients will respond differently.  This technology could be used to grow a specific organoid for a specific person and determine response on the organoid before giving to the patient.
  • Can engraft organoids into mice which can provide blood supply and allow larger organoids.
  • Clinical projects for organoids: Hirschsprung’s,  H pylori, Clostridium difficile, Short bowel syndrome, Fatty liver disease