A recent pilot (38 children) study (WG Sharp et al. J Pediatr 2019; 211: 185-92) examined the effectiveness of a less intensive feeding program to help children with autism and food selectivity.
Background: Many children with autism are extremely picky eaters.
- They may limit their diet to a ‘beige diet’ consisting of foods like chicken nuggets and fries.
- They may insist on only pureed textures
- They may demand only specific foods and limit to specific brands
To normalize these diets, typically intensive structured feeding programs are needed. However, these types of programs are costly, and not available in all communities. Parental training though the MEAL (Managing Eating Aversions and Limited variety) Plan was studied by the authors. This program consisted of 10 core and 3 booster sessions.
- At week 16, positive response rates on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale was 47.4%for the MEAL plan compared to 5.3% in a control parent education plan.
My take: This pilot study shows that less intensive programs may be helpful in children with autism and feeding problems. However, even with this more limited MEAL plan, a multidisciplinary team with a dietitian plan for each child along with behavior management strategies was needed.
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Artwork near Krog Street Market
A recent study (RS Choung et al. Gastroenterol 156: 582-91) showed that synthetic neoepitopes of the transglutaminase-deamidated gliadin complex are better noninvasive biomarkers for detecting celiac disease and for monitoring mucosal healing.
Link to Graphical Abstract and Abstract: Synthetic Neoepitopes of the Transglutaminase–Deamidated Gliadin Complex as Biomarkers for Diagnosing and Monitoring Celiac Disease
The authors studied the serum samples from 90 patients with Celiac disease (CD) and from 79 healthy controls and developed a fluorescent peptide microarray platform Then, the authors validated their findings in 82 patients with newly diagnosed CD and 217 controls.
- 7% of patients with treated (with gluten free diet [GFD]) and healed CD had positive TTG-IgA and 27% of patients treated but unhealed CD mucosa had positive TTG IgA
- With the synthetic neoepitopes, CD was identified with 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The assay identified patients with CD with healed mucosa with an 84% sensitivity and 95% specificity.
My take: More precise noninvasive markers like these should help identify individuals with celiac disease and those who have responded (or not) to the recommended gluten free diet.
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Unrelated but important —NPR reports on another large study showing that MMR does not cause autism -Link: A Large Study Provides More Evidence That MMR Vaccines Don’t Cause Autism
Related blog post: “Too many vaccines and autism” debunked
Link to full text of study from Annals of Internal Medicine: Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study
I did not make it to this year’s meeting but did get a chance to catch up on a lot information via the PG 2018 Syllabus and based on information posted online.
Here are a couple of highlights for me:
My favorite slide from postgraduate course -Dr. Robert Kramer
Slides regarding the topic of Treat-toTarget Dr. Eric Benchimol:
Slides regarding GI symptoms and autism from Dr. Kara Margolis:
Slide regarding the frequency of bariatric surgery: Dr. Rohit Kohli:
Slides regarding intestinal failure population from Dr. Conrad Cole:
From Dr. Miranda van Tilburg regarding psychological therapies for functional GI disorders:
Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.
Both the AAP and the CDC have made useful tools available to help diagnose autism sooner in an effort to improve outcomes.
From Andy Warhol Exhibit at the High Museum
Thanks to Kipp Ellsworth Twitter feed for reference: Nutritional and Dietary Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review N Sathe Pediatrics 2017; vol 139.
CONTEXT: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently use special diets or receive nutritional supplements to treat ASD symptoms.
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dietary interventions or nutritional supplements in ASD.
DATA SOURCES: Databases, including Medline and PsycINFO.
STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria.
DATA EXTRACTION: One investigator extracted data with review by a second investigator. Investigators independently assessed the risk of bias and strength of evidence (SOE) (ie, confidence in the estimate of effects).
RESULTS: Nineteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 4 with a low risk of bias, evaluated supplements or variations of the gluten/casein-free diet and other dietary approaches. Populations, interventions, and outcomes varied. Ω-3 supplementation did not affect challenging behaviors and was associated with minimal harms (low SOE). Two RCTs of different digestive enzymes reported mixed effects on symptom severity (insufficient SOE). Studies of other supplements (methyl B12, levocarnitine) reported some improvements in symptom severity (insufficient SOE). Studies evaluating gluten/casein-free diets reported some parent-rated improvements in communication and challenging behaviors; however, data were inadequate to make conclusions about the body of evidence (insufficient SOE). Studies of gluten- or casein-containing challenge foods reported no effects on behavior or gastrointestinal symptoms with challenge foods (insufficient SOE); 1 RCT reported no effects of camel’s milk on ASD severity (insufficient SOE). Harms were disparate.
LIMITATIONS: Studies were small and short-term, and there were few fully categorized populations or concomitant interventions.
There has been a lot of concern that abnormal GI function contributes to both behavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism. To categorize some of these problems, the term ‘leaky gut’ has been used.
An upcoming study (RI Kushak et al. JPGN DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001174) (thanks to Ben Gold for forwarding this reference) examines this issue. Using a case-control design, pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=61) were compared with 50 children with normal development.
- Endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy) with histologic analysis
- Disaccharidase analysis
- Intestinal permeability studies with lactulose and rhamnose
- Fecal biomarkers: calprotectin and lactoferrin
According to the authors, all of the study subjects underwent endoscopy and “all had clinical indications for diagnostic endoscopy.” Most common indications were parental reports of abdominal pain and diarrhea.
- Disaccharidase activity levels were not significantly different between the groups. In agreement with prior studies, there was frequent lactase deficiency, with 66% of ASD children in this study with deficient enzyme activity (<15 μmol/min/g). However, lactase activity in the children with ASD was not lower than the non-ASD children.
- There were no significant differences in measures of intestinal permeability. Normative values for lactulose and rhamnose ratio are not definitively established. However, when using similar cutoff ratios, there were similar results in both groups.
- Intestinal inflammatory markers (calprotectin/lactoferrin) were not significantly different, after the authors excluded the five “neurotypical” children who were diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease.
- For calprotectin, the authors considered a level <50 mcg/g to be normal. In the ASD group, 31of 49 (63%) had abnormal calprotectin compared with 19 of 31 (61%) in the non-ASD group.
- For calprotectin levels >150 mcg/g, 9 of 49 (18%) reached this level in the ASD group and 8 of 31 (26%) in the non-ASD group.
- Similar levels of GI tract inflammation were noted in both groups –generally mild.
- In the ASD group, 32 (52%) had inflammation somewhere in their GI tract, “but it was generally mild and non-diagnostic.” In the ASD group, five had features consistent with GERD, two had eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). There were 12 (19%) who had colonic inflammation and 3 (5%) with ileal inflammation. None had celiac disease or H pylori.
- In the non-ASD group, four had EoE, four (8%) had ileal inflammation, and nine (18%) had colonic inflammation. The authors noted Crohn’s disease in three and a total of five children with IBD.
- This study suggests that symptomatic children with autism have similar (and probably not worse) GI problems as neurotypical children. The idea that children with autism have a more leaky gut than children without autism is quite dubious based on these results.
- The biggest problem for GI physicians is not addressed in this study and involves children with and without autism: appropriate selection for evaluation. While the authors chose children with “clinical indications,” these, in fact, are often subjective and with permissive interpretation could be used to justify endoscopy in 40% of children.
- Another huge problem is interpretation of abnormal results. While the authors report large numbers with intestinal inflammation in both groups, most of this was considered to be insignificant clinically. How should trivial inflammation be reported in studies? This problem is not unique to this study and makes it difficult to assess the value of endoscopy more broadly.
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Law Quad, Univ Michigan
A few useful studies provide reassurances regarding exposures in the prenatal period and perinatal period that we should NOT worry about.
CN Bernstein et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 50-7.
In this study with 1671 individuals with inflammatory bowel disease and 10,488 controls, “people with IBD were not more likely to have been born by cesarean section than controls or siblings without IBD. These findings indicate that events of the immediate postpartum period that shape the developing intestinal microbiome do not affect risk for IBD.”
J Julvez et al. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2016) Full Text Link: doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv195.
For parents of autistic kids who avoid fish, this article provides information indicating that this is counter-productive. ” Seafood consumption during pregnancy is thought to be beneficial for child neuropsychological development, but to our knowledge no large cohort studies with high fatty fish consumption have analyzed the association by seafood subtype.” The authors “evaluated 1,892 and 1,589 mother-child pairs at the ages of 14 months and 5 years, respectively, in a population-based Spanish birth cohort established during 2004–2008…” Key finding: “Consumption of large fatty fish during pregnancy presents moderate child neuropsychological benefits, including improvements in cognitive functioning and some protection from autism-spectrum traits.”
My take: We often worry about the wrong things. These articles provide reassurance that mode of birth and consumption of seafood during pregnancy are things we should not worry about.