Comprehensive 2018 AASLD Guidance for Chronic Hepatitis B

NA Terrault et al. Hepatology 2018; 67: 1560-99. Here’s the full link: Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance

Some of the key points:

Table 4 (pg 1565): provides a refresher on interpretation of serology

Table 5 (pg 1567): Children and Adults Who Are HBsAg Positive:

  • Can participate in all activities, including contact sports
  • Should not be excluded from daycare or school participation and should not be isolated from other children
  • Can share food and utensils and kiss others

Figure 1 (pg 1571) Treatment algorithms.

  • For both HBsAg-positive/HBeAg-positive and HBsAg-positive/HBeAg-negative patients, treatment is recommended if ALT ≥2 x ULN.
  • For both groups, treatment is NOT recommended for those with ALT ≤ULN and low HBV DNA levels (<20,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-positive and <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-negative).
  • In those who do not fall into these categories, ongoing monitoring is recommended

Figure 1 from AASLD Guidance Link

Guidance Statements for HCC Screening in HBsAg‐Positive Persons

  • All HBsAg‐positive patients and high risk adults (see page 1574) with cirrhosis should be screened with US examination with or without AFP every 6 months.
  • There are insufficient data to identify high‐risk groups for HCC in children. However, it is reasonable to screen HBsAg‐positive children and adolescents with advanced fibrosis (F3) or cirrhosis and those with a first‐degree family member with HCC using US examination with or without AFP every 6 months.

Treatment: 

  • In adults: The AASLD recommends peg‐IFN, entecavir, or tenofovir (TDF) as preferred initial therapy for adults with immune‐active CHB
  • In children: The AASLD suggests antiviral therapy in HBeAg‐positive children (ages 2 to <18 years) with both elevated ALT and measurable HBV‐DNA levels, with the goal of achieving sustained HBeAg seroconversion.

Perinatal transmission:

  • The AASLD suggests antiviral therapy to reduce the risk of perinatal transmission of HBV in HBsAg‐positive pregnant women with an HBV‐DNA level >200,000 IU/mL..The only antivirals studied in pregnant women are lamivudine, telbivudine, and TDF. Of these 3 options, TDF is preferred to minimize the risk of emergence of viral resistance during treatment. Interim studies show high efficacy of TDF in preventing mother‐to‐child transmission.
  • The infants of all HBsAg‐positive women should receive immunoprophylaxis (HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin, per World Heath Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations)

Treatment & prevention of HBV reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppressive or cytotoxic drugs (section 6 pages 1577-9)

  • HBsAg and anti‐HBc (total or immunoglobulin G) testing should be performed in all persons before initiation of any immunosuppressive, cytotoxic, or immunomodulatory therapy.
  • HBsAg‐positive, anti‐HBc–positive patients should initiate anti‐HBV prophylaxis before immunosuppressive or cytotoxic therapy.
  • HBsAg‐negative, anti‐HBc–positive patients could be carefully monitored with ALT, HBV DNA, and HBsAg with the intent for on‐demand therapy, except for patients receiving anti‐CD20 antibody therapy (e.g., rituximab) or undergoing stem cell transplantation, for whom anti‐HBV prophylaxis is recommended.

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

HBV Reactivation Risk with HCV DAA Therapy and What to Do About It

A recent prospective study (C-J Liu et al. Gastroenterol 2018; 154: 989-97) provided some reassurance about the likelihood of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA).

In this study with 111 patients with both HCV and HBV treated with ledpasvir/sofusbuvir, all (100%) of the patients had a sustained virologic response for their HCV infection. Other key findings:

  • Of the 37 patients with baseline HBV DNA < 20 IU.mL, 31 (84%) developed detectable HBV DNA levels through posttreatment week 12.
  • Of the 74 patients with baseline HBV DNA >20 IU/mL, 39 (53%) developed increases in HBV DNA >1 log10 IU/mL through posttreatment week 12.
  • 5 patients developed ALT >2 times ULN and 3 patients were started on HBV therapy.

The associated editorial (pgs 795-8) made the following recommendations:

  • “HBsAg-negative/HBcAb-positive patients should be monitored with ALT alone until SVR12 and should be tested with HBsAg +/- HBV DNA only if ALT increases or fails to normalize on therapy.”
  • “HBsAg-positive patients with undetectable baseline HBV DNA should be considered for preemptive anti-HBV treatment, or monitored with ALT and HBV DNA until SVR12”
  • “HBsAg-positive patients with positive baseline HBV DNA should be started on preemptive anti-HBV treatment until SVR12.”

Using the above management strategy will limit the number of HBV-infected patients who need to be treated.

My take: This study and the associated editorial provide useful information regarding DAA in coinfected HBV/HCV patients; this is important for patients and practitioners, especially given the black box warning on DAA medications.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

What HBV Testing is Needed Before Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy

As noted in a previous blog post (What’s Going on with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B?):

Hepatitis B Reactivation risk & recommendation: (For all of the specifics — Full text article link)

  • High risk of reactivation (>10%): B cell depleting agents (eg. rituximab, ofatumumab), anthracycline derivatives (eg. doxorubicin, epirubicin), and daily moderate to high dose steroids (>10 mg) for at least 4 weeks. Recommendation: Use HBV prophylaxis
  • Moderate risk of reactivation (1-10%): anti-TNF therapy, integrin inhibitors (eg. ustekinimab, vedolizumab), tyrosine kinase inhibitors, low-dose steroids daily (<10 mg/day) for at least 4 weeks.  Recommendation: Use HBV prophylaxis if HBsAg-positive but not if only anti-HBc-positive
  • Low risk of reactivation (<1%): azathiopurine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate. Recommendation: No antiviral prophylaxis required.

For those interested in a more detailed summary of the recommendations: AGA Website HBV Reactivation Recommendations

In line with the reactivation risk, a new study (and editorial) (M Barone et al. Hepatology 2015; 62: 40-6; editorial BP Perillo. Hepatology 2105; 62: 16-8) indicates that for those receiving tumor necrosis inhibitor (anti-TNF) monotherapy, hepatitis B screening requires only checking HBsAg. The study examined a total of 1218 Caucasian rheumatologic patients (receiving biologic agents) between 2001-12. In this cohort, the authors identified 179 patients who had a previously resolved HBV infection; 146 treated with anti-TNF, 14 with rituximab, and 19 with other biologic therapy. Key finding: HBV reactivation was not seen in these patients.

Bottomline: For most pediatric patients receiving anti-TNF monotherapy (eg. infliximab, adalimumab), screening with HBsAg alone should suffice.

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Grand Tetons from Jackson Lodge

Grand Tetons from Jackson Lodge