A recent study (I Aziz et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 878-86) examined the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Rome IV functional nausea and vomiting disorders (FNVDs) in adults. The study used internet cross-sectional health surveys from 5931 adults in 2015.
- 2.2% of the population (n=131) fulfilled criteria for Rome IV FNVDs
- Hot water bathing, which has been reported in cannaboid hyperemesis syndrome, was also noted in patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) in 44%. “This behavior was independent of cannabis but augmented by its use.”
My take: FNVDs are common and hot water bathing is not pathognomonic for cannaboid hyperemesis syndrome.
- Moon AM, Buckley SA, Mark NM. Successful treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome with topical capsaicin. ACG Case Rep J. 2018 Jan 3;5:e3.
- Graham J, Barberio M, Wang GS. Capsaicin cream for treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome in adolescents: A case series. 2017 Dec;140(6): e20163795.
Hotel in Barcelona
A recent review (P Koduru et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16: 467-79) provides a good review of dyspepsia and in addition provides some literary perspective.
In their introduction, the authors quote James Joyce in Ulysses: “Tom Rochford split powder from a twisted paper into the water set before him –That cursed dyspepsia, he said before drinking. –Breadsoda is very good Davy.”
After reviewing the definition and the pathophysiology, the authors provide a suggested algorithm (Figure 2).
- In areas with high H pylori, there is an option of “test and treat” and relying on endoscopy in those who fail to respond
- Empiric PPI therapy which works best if reflux-type symptoms are present and relying on endoscopy in those who fail to respond
- Endoscopy without empiric treatment
In those with a negative endoscopy –>functional dyspepsia treatment is driven by symptoms:
- If pain, the first line option recommended is a tricyclic antidepressant (pain modulator)
- If nausea, the first line option recommended is an antiemetic
- If early satiety, the first line option recommended is buspirone
For those with resistant and disabling symptoms, “consider nonpharmacologic approaches, such as psychotherapy or acupuncture.”
Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.
Review/excerpt of this study from NEJM Journal Watch: by Daniel J. Pallin, MD, MPH.
In the current trial, 120 adult ED patients with nausea or vomiting who did not require intravenous access were randomized to inhaled isopropyl alcohol plus 4 mg oral ondansetron; inhaled isopropyl alcohol plus oral placebo; or inhaled saline plus 4 mg oral ondansetron. Isopropyl alcohol was provided in the form of a standard alcohol swab. Patients received a single dose of the oral intervention but could sniff alcohol or saline swabs repeatedly. Nausea was measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale at baseline and 30 minutes.
Mean nausea scores decreased by 30 mm in the alcohol/ondansetron group, 32 mm in the alcohol/placebo group, and 9 mm in the saline/ondansetron group. Rescue antiemetic therapy was given to 28%, 25%, and 45% of each group, respectively. Differences between alcohol and saline groups were statistically significant. Patients in the inhaled alcohol groups also had better nausea control at the time of discharge and reported higher satisfaction with nausea treatment. No adverse events occurred. The mechanism of action is currently unknown.
Dr. Pallin’s comments on study:
It is uncommon for us to assign a rating of “Practice Changing” to a small, single-center study, but these results are truly remarkable and are consistent with prior research. For patients not obviously requiring IV therapy, we should treat nausea with repeated inhalations from an isopropyl alcohol swab instead of administering any other drug. And, although this study provides no direct evidence of benefit to patients who do require IV therapy, there would seem to be little downside to trying this simple and safe intervention in that group, too.
My take: Who is doing the pediatric study to try to replicate these results in the pediatric population?
Related blog posts:
Foggy Morning in Sandy Springs
This post provides followup to a previous post: Dreaded Nausea.
A recent study (AC Russell, AL Stone, LS Walker, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 706-11) provides even more reasons to dread nausea.
This prospective study of 871 children with functional abdominal pain examined the comorbidity of nausea. Followup data were collected from 392 patients at median of 8.7 years later.
- At baseline, 44.8% of patients reported nausea. This group reported worse abdominal pain, somatic symptoms and depression than those without nausea.
- At followup, “those with nausea in childhood continue to have more severe GI (P<.001) and somatic symptoms (P=.003)…as well as higher levels of anxiety (P=.02) and depression (P=.02).” Anxiety and depression remained significant after controlling for baseline abdominal pain severity.
- At the followup evaluation, the prevalence of any functional GI disorder (FGID) was 85 (48%) of those who had nausea at baseline compared with 77 (36%) for those without nausea at baseline.
In their discussion, the authors reiterate findings from previous work on this patient sample: “current and lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders are substantially higher in adolescents with a history of FAP [functional abdominal pain] compared with healthy controls (lifetime, 51% vs. 20%; current 30% vs 12%). The lifetime risk of depressive disorder is also significantly higher in those with FAP (40% vs. 16%).” They also note some limitations in their work, including the absence of formal screening for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
My take (borrowed from authors): This study “suggests that nausea is more than just a comorbid symptom of FAP and may have a different underlying etiology” and increases likelihood of persistent symptoms as well as anxiety and depression.
Briefly noted: RJ Shulman et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 712-9. This randomized, double-blind study showed that added psyllium reduced frequency (but not severity) of abdominal pain in children (n=103) with irritable bowel syndrome. Psyllium was dosed at 6 g/day for 7-11 year olds, and 12 g for 12-18 year olds. Interestingly, this study did not show that psyllium caused a difference in normal stools or other mechanistic reasons for improvement, like breath hydrogen, breath methane, intestinal permeability or microbiome composition.
Atlanta Zoo, Bald Eagle
Briefly noted: RM Navari et al. NEJM 2016; 375: 134-42. Olanzapine (marketed as Zyprexa), compared with placebo, in combination with dexamethasone, aprepitant (or fosaprepitant) and a 5-hydroxytryptomaine type 3 antagonist (eg palonosetron, ondansetron, or granisetron) helped reduced nausea/vomiting. Among a total of 380 patients, 74% in the olanzapine group had no nausea/vomiting compared with 45% in the placebo group in the first 24 hours. In the 1st 120 hours, the rates of no nausea/vomiting were 37% vs. 22%. A “complete response,” defined as no emesis episodes and no rescue medications, occurred in 64% vs 41% in the 1st 120 hours. The most concerning side effect reported was severe sedation which was reported in 5%.
Arthur Ravenel Jr Bridge
One symptom that is dreaded by both patients and physicians is nausea. A helpful review on this topic (K Kovacic, C DiLorenzo. JPGN 2016; 62: 365-71) provides information on functional nausea. A few points:
- Endoscopy has low yield. One cited study suggested that in the absence of clinical alarm symptoms, 98% of endoscopies were normal.
- 4-hour nuclear medicine study ‘may be justified.’
Therapeutic: Numerous drug/alternative therapies are discussed -most with a paucity of data. These include:
- Alternatives agents: Ginger, STW5 (iberogast), peppermint oil
- Antiemetics: Ondansetron, promethazine, prochlorperazine
- TCAs: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, doxepin
- SSRIs: citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine
- Anxiolytics: buspirone
- Tetracyclic antidepressant: mirtazapine
- Antimigraine: cyprohepatadine, propranolol, topiramate, levetiracetam
- Prokinetics: erythromycin, metoclopropramide, domperidone
- Others: fludrocortisone, aprepitant, cannabionids
- Psychology: “early involvement of a psychologist and emphasis on coping strategies and maintaining functioning with continued school attendance is a primary goal.”
The authors note that retrospective data in children suggest that TCAs have a response rate of ~50% (defined as more than a 50% improvement). In one study, the mean dose of amitriptyline was 50 mg at bedtime.
In a related study, Madani et al (JPGN 2016; 62: 409-13) describe their experience (retrospective review) using cyproheptadine in children with a range of functional gastrointestinal disorders. The most common indications were functional abdominal pain (36%), functional dyspepsia (23%), combination disorder (17%) and abdominal migraines (12%). Overall, they included 151 children and they report 110 (72.8%) had complete symptom improvement; the remainder had either partial or no improvement. In those who responded, the mean initial dose was 0.14 mg/kg/day; the final mean dose was nearly identical. Adverse effects of sleepiness was reported in 13% and weight gain in 10%.
Link: Impressive “water swallowing” NEJM video (thanks to Jose Garza for sharing). In a person who had undergone an esophagogastric bypass as a child. Still photo below: