IBD Update -September 2020

EM Kim et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020; 26: 1232-38. Mucosal Eosinophilia Is an Independent Predictor of Vedolizumab Efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases n=65 patients. In IBD cohort, colonic eosinophilia (340 +/- 156 vs 236 +/- 124) was associated with clinical non-response to vedolizumab (as was prior anti-TNF treatment). In those with ulcerative colitis, mean eosinophil count was 438 in nonresponders compared to 299 in responders. In those with Crohn’s disease, colonic biopsies showed a non-significant increase in eosinophil count in non-responders compared to responders: 352 vs. 232.

MA Sofia et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020; 26: 1251-9. Poor Sleep Quality in Crohn’s Disease Is Associated With Disease Activity and Risk for Hospitalization or Surgery

  • Ninety-two CD and 82 control subjects
  • Crohn’s disease subjects with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) >5 more often had inflammatory phenotypes and reported increased benzodiazepine and psychiatric medication use. Crohn’s disease subjects with PSQI >5 also reported more night awakenings due to pain and bathroom use.
  • The PSQI correlated with HBI
  • PSQI >8 was predictive of surgery or hospitalization (hazards ratio 5.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-27.54).

My take: This study indicates that poor sleep is a marker for increased adverse outcomes/disease activity.  It may be that sleep disturbance is due to increased disease activity or this may be a bidirectional issue in which poor sleep triggers more disease activity as well.

A Ricciuto et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1509-1517. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Is Associated With Milder Clinical Activity But More Frequent Subclinical Inflammation and Growth Impairment

This retrospective study provides additional information on the observation that children with PSC often have subclinical disease; it is similar to a prospective study by the same group in 2018 (n=37):  (prior blog post: Active Colitis More Likely in Children in Clinical Remission Who Have IBD and PSC) Key finding: Higher proportions of children with PSC-IBD had backwash ileitis, pancolitis, and rectal sparing, and more severe right-sided disease, than controls (P < .05). Conclusions: “Despite the mild clinical activity of IBD in patients with PSC, lack of symptoms does not always indicate lack of mucosal inflammation. Children with PSC-IBD have greater growth impairments compared with children with ulcerative colitis or IBD-unclassified.”

Pushback on AAP SIDS -Sleeping Guidelines

Recently, this blog summarized AAP SIDS recommendations.  These recommendations have been reviewed in a NY Times commentary: Should Your Baby Really Sleep in the Same Room as You?

This opinion piece provides a good background on the issue os whether having a baby sleep in the same room is beneficial and explains some of the flaws in the studies behind the recommendations.  Here’s an excerpt:

So when the American Academy of Pediatrics recently issued new infant sleep guidelines — highlighting a recommendation that babies sleep in their parents’ rooms for at least six months but ideally a full year — some parents despaired…

Yet the recommendation drew skepticism from some doctors, who argued that a close look at the evidence showed that the benefits of room-sharing didn’t always justify its costs to parents, who would have to sacrifice privacy, sex and, above all, sleep…

Depriving parents of good sleep can also endanger babies. Sleep-deprived people can have decreased empathy. Sleep deprivation is associated with anincrease in car accidents (which are a top killer of older children). It stresses marriages and families and is significantly associated with an increased riskof postpartum depression.

And with regard to the studies:

The first thing to note is that they all collected data in the 1990s, when SIDS was much more common than it is today. The academy said room-sharing “decreases the risk of SIDS by as much as 50 percent,” but that was before the significant improvement in SIDS rates. It’s not clear that sharing a bedroom would make as much of a difference today as it did then.

The second is these were all studies in Europe, where room-sharing is much more common. Only about 20 percent to 41 percent of infants in the control group slept in their own rooms. That makes it hard to pinpoint the reason they survived, and to generalize the findings to the United States.

My take: While the risk of SIDS may improve when infants sleep in the same room, this article makes a compelling argument that it may cause more harm than benefit.

 

NPR: Understanding “Sleep Munchies”

From NPR: Sleep Munchies: Why It’s Harder to Resist Snacks When We’re Tired

An excerpt:

There’s lots of evidence that getting too little sleep is associated with overeating and an increased body weight.

The question is, why? Part of the answer seems to be that skimping on sleep can disrupt our circadian rhythms. Lack of sleep can also alter hunger and satiety hormones.

Now, a new study finds evidence that sleep deprivation (getting less than five hours of sleep per night) produces higher peaks of a lipid in our bloodstream known as an endocannabinoid that may make eating more pleasurable.

So, what’s an endocannabinoid? If you look at the word closely, you may already have a clue. The prefix endo means inner, or within. And cannabinoid looks like … you got it: cannabis.

My take: Another good reason to avoid being on call -it could lead to sleep deprivation/weight gain.

Old San Juan

Old San Juan

Sleep Duration and Subsequent Obesity

A provocative study from Brazil (CSE Halal et al. J Pediatr 2016; 168: 99-103) examined a cohort of 4231 infants and assessed sleep duration from 1-4 years of age.

Findings:

  • 10.1% of cohort had short sleep duration at any follow-up
  • At 4 years of age, 201 children (5.3%) were obese and 302 (8%) were overweight
  • Prevalence ratio for obesity/overweight was 1.32 among those who were ‘short-sleepers’

This study introduction notes that studies in adults have suggested an association between poor sleep and weight gain, “possibly through elevation of cortisol and gherlin levels, along with reduction in leptin levels, thereby leading to increased hunger and reduced energy expenditure.”

Normal sleep patterns: for infants 12-15 hours/day, & for toddlers 11-14 hours/day.  At night, average expected sleep is 12 hours at 1 year of age and 11 hours at 4 years of age.

My take: Looking at early sleep patterns helps reduce the likelihood of reverse causation.  This study and others shows an association with less sleep and increased likelihood of weight gain.  Why???

In same issue (AI Wijtzes et al. J Pediatr 2016; 168: 118-25) report that breakfast skipping at age 4 years is associated (ß =1.38) with a higher percent fat mass at age 6 years, though no associations were found with BMI or weight status.  This study involved prospectively collected data from 5914 children in the “Generation R Study” in The Netherlands.

Briefly noted: JA Emond et al. J Pediatr 2016; 168: 158-63. “Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants …toy collecting partially mediated that positive association.” This study involved 100 parents with children aged 3-7 in a rural community.

Related blog posts:

This graphic identifies commercial entities influencing food choices

This graphic identifies commercial entities influencing food choices

Does Staying Up All Night Affect Surgery the Next Day?

According to a recent study (A Govindarajan et al. NEJM 2015; 373: 845-33), the answer is no.  That being said, my preference would be for a well-rested surgeon.

Some of the details:

The authors conducted a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study in Ontario, Canada.  Twelve procedures were analyzed from 1448 physicians and involving 38,978 patients.  The same physicians had his/her procedures compared when they were done after treating patients from midnight to 7am to when these were done on days that were not preceded by night call.  The physicians included in the study were attending physicians; thus this does not provide insight into whether residents or fellows would perform similarly.

Key finding:

  • No difference in any primary outcome: death, readmission, or complication.  This primary outcome occurred in 22.2% after night call and 22.4% without night call.

Here’s a graph below -which depicts, from top to bottom, odds ratio for cholecystectomy (n=9322 patients, 479 physicians), gastric bypass (n=320 patients, 25 physicians), colon resection (n=2214 patients, 315 physicians), hysterectomy (n=7020 patients, 384 physicians), knee arthroplasty (n-2504 patients, 192 physicians), hip arthroplasty (n=1564 patients, 154 physicians), repair hip fracture (n=1192 patients, 166 physicians), lung resection (n=550 patients, 55 physicians), CABG (n=460 patients, 48 physicians), Spine surgery (n=3456 patients, 104 physicians), Craniotomy (n=1396patients, 66 physicians), Angioplasty (n=8980 patients, 130 physicians)

From NEJM Twitter Feed

From NEJM Twitter Feed

IBD References 10/13

Recent useful references:

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 2490-2500.  “Endemic Fungal Infections in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated with Anti-TNF Antibody Therapy”

  • Reviews histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, & coccidioidomycosis. Provides endemic maps (which are available at CDC website), diagnostic tips, and treatment recommendations.  Of these three infections, blastomycosis is endemic in Northern Georgia.
  • Histoplasmosis can be diagnosed with urinary antigen, Blastomycosis is most commonly diagnosed with sputum cultures or bronchial washings for cytology, and coccidioidomycosis can be identified with serology (Coccidioides immittis)
  • Generally a good idea to get a chest radiograph in patients with respiratory symptoms, fever, chills, myalgias, and headaches.
  • CDC Fact Sheet – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  Map for several endemic fungal diseases, including histoplasmosis and blastomycosis.
  • CDC Features – Valley Fever: Awareness is Key Map for endemic coccidiomycosis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 2457-2463. “Efficacy and Safety of Natalizumab in Crohn’s Disease Patients Treated at 6 Boston Academic Hospitals”

  • 44 of 64 with adequate evaluation had either a partial or complete clinical response.  In this select group of complicated patients, about one-third had clinical improvement for more than a year.
  • No cases of PML noted in this cohort.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 2433-2439. “Serum IL-17A in Newly Diagnosed Treatment-Naive Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Reflects Clinical Disease Severity and Predicts the Course of Disease”

  • Mucosal mRNA expression of IL-17A was 99.8 times higher in ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls.
  • Serum IL-17A correlated with clinical disease severity and was a marker for disease course over the following 3 years.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 2440-2443. “Assessment of the Relationship Between Quality of Sleep and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients”

  • Data found an association between poor sleep quality and disease activity.  Furthermore, patients in clinical remission with abnormal sleep have a high likelihood of subclinical disease activity (another question for the EPIC smartform?).

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 2423-2432. “Nationwide Temporal Trends in Incidence of Hospitalization and Surgical Intestinal Resection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the United States from 1997-2009”

  • Annual percent increase (API) of 2.1% noted in incidence of intestinal resection for Crohn’s disease.  Stable colectomy rate for ulcerative colitis during this period.
  • Annual incidence of hospitalization was 5.7 per 100,000 for Crohn’s and 3.5 per 100,000 for ulcerative colitis; there was a significant increases during study period: 3.8% API for Crohn’s and 4.5% for ulcerative colitis.

“Tummy Time” Not Needed

A recent NY Times article reviews a study which showed no benefit in motor development in babies who had “tummy time.”

Here’s the link: nyti.ms/11vrG11 

Here’s an excerpt:

Putting infants to sleep on their backs, recommended since the early 1990s, has helped reduce the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome. ..Now a new study, published in May in the journal Early Human Development, suggests that tummy time may be irrelevant.

Canadian researchers compared 1,114 infants born from 1990 to 1992, just before the “back to sleep” campaign began, with 351 infants born 20 years later. They found no difference between the two groups in the age at which prone to supine or supine to prone rolling began, or in the order in which those behaviors appeared….

Whether tummy time helps or not, said the lead author, Johanna Darrah, a pediatric physical therapist at the University of Alberta, “the back to sleep campaign has not adversely affected motor development. Motor development happens.”