Great Issue: We Need More Negative Studies (Published)

A recent ACG “Negative Issue” had some terrific articles –thanks to Ben Gold for sharing his issue.

Here are a few of the studies:

  1. Buspirone had similar efficacy as placebo in a randomized clinical trial for childhood functional abdominal pain, (n=117)  Full text: Comparison of the Efficacy of Buspirone and Placebo in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain Key finding: Treatment response rates for buspirone and placebo were 58.3% and 59.6% at week 4 (P = 0.902) and 68.1% and 71.1% at week 12 (P = 0.753), respectively.
  2. IBS does not increase mortality in a nationwide cohort study (>300,000 in study)  Full text: Mortality Risk in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Key finding: After adjustment for confounders, IBS was not linked to mortality (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.92–1.00) …and patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy were at no increased risk of death (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.99–1.06).
  3. Mongerson was not effective for active Crohn’s disease in a large phase 3 study, n=701 Full text: Mongersen (GED-0301) for Active Crohn’s Disease Key finding: The primary endpoint, clinical remission achievement (CD Activity Index score <150) at week 12, was attained in 22.8% of patients on GED-0301 vs 25% on placebo (P = 0.6210). At study termination, proportions of patients achieving clinical remission at week 52 were similar among individual GED-0301 groups and placebo.
  4. Treatment of H pylori did not increase the risk of C difficile infection (retrospective study)  Full text: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori & Clostridium difficile  Key finding: Of these 38,535 patients with H pylori based on endoscopic pathology, urea breath testing, or stool antigen, 284 (0.74%) had subsequent CDI. Those who developed CDI were less likely to have received treatment for HP within the VHA (66.2% vs 74.8%, P < 0.001)
  5. Percutaneous liver biospy was not safer when done by experienced clinician compared to a fellow, n=212 biopsies  Full text: Major Complications of Pediatric Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Do Not Differ Among Physicians With Different Degrees of Training  Key finding: No significant differences were found between groups (fellows vs staff) regarding number of punctures (median of 1.7 for both), nonrepresentative biopsies (4.2% vs 2.6%), and hemoglobin drop (median of 0.7 vs 0.5 g/L).  Interestingly, in the discussion, the authors assert: “previous studies do not support the conclusion that ultrasound-guided biopsies are superior in terms of safety or adequacy when compared with the use of ultrasound to mark the puncture” (this is based on a study referenced from 2007:  J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;22(9):1490–3.)  However, given that severe complications from liver biopsy are infrequent, this current study may be underpowered to detect a small difference between experienced clinicians and fellows.

Related blog posts:


It’s come to this:  Link: YouTube: Dirty Dancing Remake -Safest with a Lamp (this link is for Bernsie). 4 minute video.

CCFA Conference Notes 2016 (part 5) -Emerging Therapies

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized this terrific presentation; most of the material has been covered in this blog in prior entries (can use search function to find additional relevant material) but still this was a useful review. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

Emerging Therapies in IBD –Dr. Gary Lichtenstein

Background: This lecture started with a review of current therapies. We have learned how to use our current therapies better. There still remain a large number of patients that face surgery with IBD; though there has been improvement (?50% reduction).

Issues with thiopurines were reviewed. May take 2-6 months to take effect, though monotherapy with thiopurines are fairly ineffective for Crohn’s disease as initial therapy.

Leukocyte Trafficking Agents:

  • Natalizumab
  • Vedolizumab
  • AJM300 –oral agent. Initial safety data were fine.
  • AMG 181
  • Etrolizumab (Vermeire S Lancet 2014) –low rates of endoscopic healing, but better than placebo

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PF-00547,659

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S1P Modulators:

Fingolimod

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Ozanimod (RPC1063) (oral agent, fairly rapid onset) causes S1P-r on lymphocytes to be internalized –more selective than Fingolimod. Good safety has been noted thus far.  No notable cardiac problems. Infrequent elevations of transaminases; this issue will need to be followed.

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Tofacitinib oral Janus Kinus (JAK) Inhibitor (Sanborn WJ et al. NEJM 2012; 367: 616-24). Dr. Lichtenstein thinks 10 mg will be recommended dose. Follow lipids. For UC

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Mongerson related post: Mongerson -Phase II Data Available in NEJM | gutsandgrowth

 

Ustekinumab

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Related article from GI & Hep News: Ustekinumab for complex Crohn’s from ECCO conference/UNITI-1 Study (n=741)

FMT.  Further studies are needed

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Mongerson -Phase II Data Available in NEJM

Previously, this blog noted that a phase II study showed that Mongerson, an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, had promising data for moderate-to-severe Crohn’s: An Oral Oligonucleotide in the Crohn’s Treatment Pipeline …

The study has now been been published: NEJM 2015; 372: 1104-13.  Among patients who received 40 mg and 160 mg of mongerson, remission (CDAI <150) at 15 days was achieved in 55% and 65% respectively compared to 12% for 10 mg dose and 10% for placebo group.

The associated editorial (pg 1166-67) notes that only 18% of the patients with elevated C-reactive protein and randomized to the 40 mg and 160 mg doses normalized these levels at the end of the treatment period.  Thus, further trials will need to look more closely at objective biomarkers.

Unrelated but interesting -from John Pohl & Bryan Vartabedian’s twitter feeds:  “Food Babe” Exposed as a Fraud

An Oral Oligonucleotide in the Crohn’s Treatment Pipeline & Smart Patients

The preliminary data are in from a phase II study regarding Mongerson, a oral pill for Crohn’s disease.

Here’s the link: Oral oligonucledotide shows efficacy, safety in Crohn’s

Here’s an excerpt from GI & Hepatology News:

Fourteen days of daily treatment with mongersen, an oral, antisense oligonucleotide, safely produced remissions in two-thirds of patients with Crohn’s disease in a phase II study with a total of 163 patients…

Mongensen “is not an anti-inflammatory drug. It removes a brake on the normal immunosupressant mechanism in the gut, and that is why the effect is long lasting. It allows TGF [transforming growth factor]-beta to work again [as an endogenous immunosuppressant] and promote healing,” said Dr. Monteleone, a professor of gastroenterology at the University of Rome Tor Vergata.

Oligonucleotide blockade of the production of the Smad7 intracellular protein prevented the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on TGF-beta and thus allowed TGF-beta to inhibit cytokine production and T lymphocyte signaling (J. Clin. Invest. 2001;108:601-9).

From ImproveCareNow — Smart Patients Online Community -may be helpful resource for families:

There are many social networks and online communities for IBD, but we have chosen to partner with the Smart Patients team because their custom-built, disease-specific forums offer a truly safe, warm and engaging experience for users. Smart Patients also offers conversation tagging, and clearly defined community norms, which means community members are highly likely to find the answers they need and highly unlikely to be trolled. And because the conversations are arranged using tags and completely searchable, you can always find what you’re looking for.

The Smart Patients team and ImproveCareNow have partnered to create an online IBD community that is supportive and also powerful. The Smart Patients IBDcommunity has the power to improve health and health care systems through patient and family peer-to-peer learning.