Among 1-16 years of age (~1.95 million in total), 15 required ICU admission; there were no deaths in this age group
“Fewer than 10 pre-school teachers [1-6 years] and 20 schoolteachers received ICU care up to June 30, 2020.” Excluding health care workers, the occupational risk was similar to other occupations, with relative risk of 1.10 (0.49-2.49, 95% CI) and 0.43 (0.28-0.68, 95% CI) for preschool and school teachers respectively.
My take: This study suggests that school teachers are at similar risk for COVID-19 infection as other essential workers. In Sweden, during this timeframe, distancing but not masking was recommended. Thus, transmission rates could be lowered further.
In this retrospective study from Australia (P Jacoby et al J Pediatr 2020; 217: 131-8.), the authors analyzed two cohorts with total of 673 children with disabilities who had undergone gastrostomy tube (GT) placement.
All-cause hospitalizations declined at 5 years after procedure with combined (both cohorts) incidence rate ratio of 0.63
Admissions for lower respiratory tract infections did not change appreciably
Admissions for epilepsy were generally decreased (see Table V) –this drop is mainly what accounts for the lower hospitalization rates.
Fundoplication (which occurred in ~30% with GT insertion) “seemed to decrease the relative incidence of acute LRTI admissions in the combined cohort”
The specific numbers for hospitalizations are listed in Table V.
In their discussion, the authors noted that in the year prior to GT placement, there had been an elevated number of hospitalizations. With regard to fundoplication, the authors note uncertain benefit for respiratory complications. In previous studies of neonates and children with neurologic impairment and GT placement, there was similar gastrointestinal and respiratory related admissions with or without fundoplication.
My take: GT placement facilitates care for children with disabilities including provision of medication and nutrition. This study confirms subsequent improvement in hospitalization rates but does not show a clear benefit with regard to respiratory infections.
My take: While big changes in the frequency of these outcomes were not demonstrated in this large study, prior studies, including the RISK study, have shown that anti-TNF therapy can be disease-modifying and reduce the risk of penetrating disease in Crohn’s disease.