Online Aspen Webinar (Part 3) -Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Below I’ve included a few slides and some notes; my notes may have errors of omission or transcription.

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Beyond Anecdotal Medicine  Jim Squires

Key points:

  • MMP-7 is emerging as better biomarker than alk phos or GGT
  • Patients with PSC-IBD often have PUCAI scores which underestimates severity of IBD activity. Even PSC-IBD patients in “clinical remission” often have disease activity.
  • PSC-IBD phenotype includes pancolitis (often with rectal sparing and backwash ileitis
  • Long-term prognosis is associated with level of GGT values
  • Prognosis: ~70% have event-free survival at 5 years
  • Adult prognosis models are inadequate due to frequent differences between disease in children and disease in adults.  Adults also have more comorbidities: obestiy, smoking, alcohol and medications
  • SCOPE index is a useful prognostic model for children (scores of 3 or less indicate very low risk of disease progression over next 5 years)
  • Actigall is current first line treatment in children based on biochemical improvement (no long term proof of efficacy); vancomycin has only anecdotal evidence of effectiveness

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Year in Review: My Favorite 2019 Posts

Yesterday, I listed the posts with the most views.  The posts below were the ones I like the most.

General/General Health:

Nutrition:

Liver:

Endoscopy:

Intestinal Disorders:

 

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

 

How To Diagnose Biliary Atresia in 48 hrs

From Cincinnati Children’s e-Newsletter

An excerpt:

New Test Expedites the Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia

A groundbreaking test developed at Cincinnati Children’s can expedite a diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA), helping physicians decide quickly whether to perform a liver biopsy followed by an operative cholangiogram, the definitive test for BA. The test quantifies the concentration of MMP-7 (matrix metalloproteinase-7), a serum protein that researchers at Cincinnati Children’s discovered in 2017 is a biomarker of BA.

Physicians can order the MMP-7 assay by submitting a requisition form. Test results are available within 48 hours, and a pediatric hepatologist is always available for consultation regarding the interpretation of test results.

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More Data, More Nuance with MMP-7: Best Biliary Atresia Biomarker

As noted by my previous blog (New Way to Diagnose Biliary Atresia), I am enthusiastic about the development of MMP-7 (Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) as a biomarker for biliary atresia.

A new study (Wu J-F , Jeng Y-M, Chen H-L, Ni Y-H, Hsu H-Y, Chang M-H. Quantification of serum matrix metallopeptide 7 levels may assist the diagnosis and outcome prediction for biliary atresia. J Pediatr. 2019;208:30–7) and associated editorial provide additional data and nuance.

Key points:

  • “Wu et … studied 100 cholestatic infants presenting consecutively to their institution over a 10-year period, including 36 eventually diagnosed with biliary atresia. Median serum MMP-7 levels were significantly higher in biliary atresia at the time of diagnosis, with an optimal serum MMP-7 level of >1.43 ng/mL for predicting biliary atresia.  In comparison, similarly high MMP-7 levels were found in only 1 infant who was cholestatic without biliary atresia.”
  • “The authors found that serum MMP-7 levels were significantly lower in the 14 infants ≤30 days old diagnosed with biliary atresia, compared with the 22 infants >30 days old at diagnosis. In some cases, serum MMP-7 levels in younger infants with biliary atresia overlapped with those from infants with other liver diseases, such as neonatal hepatitis.”
  • After Kasai portoenterostomy: “Serum MMP-7 levels were significantly higher 6 months post-Kasai portoenterostomy in infants who later required liver transplant, with a serum MMP-7 level of >10.30 mg/dL optimally predicting transplant 3-4 years after Kasai portoenterostomy … serum MMP-7 levels are still high even in patients who do not need liver transplant.”
  • The authors “highlight 1 complication with using serum MMP-7 levels: values can vary widely among different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits used.”

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Sagrada Familia -work in progress.  Amazing.

 

New Way to Diagnose Biliary Atresia

Case report: Recently, our group consulted on a 3 week old infant (ex34 week) who weighed 2.8 kg and had cholestasis. In addition, he had a GGT in the 400s and an ultrasound notable for a “small” gallbladder.  Due to the patient’s small size, he underwent a HIDA (no excretion).   The GGT was actually improving but the clinical situation was concerning for biliary atresia.

Instead of arranging a liver biopsy, we were able to perform a MMP-7 (Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) assay which will be commercially available soon.  The result, which returned in 48 hours, indicated that the child had a >95% likelihood of biliary atresia. Subsequently, this infant is recovering from a hepatoportoenterostomy. No liver biopsy was needed prior to surgery.

My take: The MMP-7 assay is a remarkable test which is going to rapidly change the approach to infants with cholestasis.  I expect that this test will be ordered along with a serum alpha-one antitrypsin phenotype and an ultrasound.  In those with persistent cholestasis with negative initial testing, it is likely that, in the majority, a genetic cholestasis panel would be pursued rather than a liver biopsy.

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Mesquite Flat Sand Dunes